Agustín Fuentes shreds a recent paper from PLoS ONE that claims a litany of “sex differences” in trying to define “masculinity-femininity” at the SciAm guest blog:
“Sex” and “Gender” are not the same thing. Sex is a biological state that is measure via chromosomal content and a variety of physiological and developmental measures. Gender is the roles, expectations and perceptions that a given society has for the sexes. Most societies have two genders on a masculinity-femininity continuum, some have more. The two are interconnected, but not the same thing. We are born with a sex, but acquire gender and there is great inter-individual diversity within societies and sexes in regards to how sex and gender play out in behavior and personality.
Check out the post for more. Plenty of mention on where the body of literature stands on the development of gender vs. sex.